Oceanography

  1. Name five branches of oceanography. Describe at least five ways that man is becoming more dependent upon knowing about the oceans.
  2. Describe the effects of the oceans. Include the effect of currents on the weather and climate. Point out how air and ocean currents are alike and different.
  3. Tell how ocean waves are described. Point out the differences between the storm surge, tsunami, tidal wave, and title bore. Tell the difference between sea, swell, and surf. Explain how breakers are formed.
  4. Draw a cross section of underwater topography. Show what is meant by:
    1. Continental shelf.
    2. Continental slope.
    3. Abyssal plains.
    Name and put on your drawing the following: seamount, guyot, deep, rift valley, canyon, and trench. Compare the depths in the oceans with the heights of the mountains.
  5. List the main salts, gases, and foods in sea water. Describe the importance of these to life in the sea. What is meant by Dittmar's principle? Why is it important?
  6. Tell the meaning of phytoplankton, zooplankton, nekton, and benthos. Describe the importance of phytoplankton as a main producer of living things. Tell the place and importance of plankton in the food chain.
  7. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Make a plankton net. Tow the net by a dock, wade with it, hold it in a current, or tow it from a rowboat. Do this for about 20 minutes. Save the sample. Examine it under a microscope or highpower glass. Identify the three most common types of plankton in the sample.*
    2. Make a series of models (clay or plaster or wood) of a volcanic island. Show the growth of an atoll from a fringing reef through a barrier reef. Describe the Darwinian theory of coral reef formation.
    3. Measure the water temperature 1 foot below the surface of a body of water four times daily (8 a.m., noon, 4 and 8 p.m.) for 6 straight days. Measure the air temperature. Note the cloud cover and roughness of the water. Show your findings on a graph. Tell how the water temperature changes with air temperature.*
    4. Make a model showing the inshore sediment movement by littoral currents, tidal movement, and wave action. Include such things as high and low waterlines, low tide terrace, cusps, beach scarp, and berm. Show how the offshore bars are built up and torn down.
    5. Make a wave generator. Show reflection and refraction of waves. Show how groins, jetties, and breakwaters affect these patterns.
  8. Do ONE of the following:
    1. Write a 500-word report on any good book about oceanography. (Before reading have your counselor approve it.)
    2. Visit one of the following. Write a 500-word report about your visit.
      1. an oceanographic research ship or
      2. an oceanographic institute.
    3. Explain to your troop in a 5-minute prepared speech "Why Oceanography is Important" or "Job in Oceanography." (Before making it, show your speech outline to your counselor.)

* May be done in lakes or streams.

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